WHAT IT COVERS: The science, public health, public policy and global response to the growing health issue of chronic exposure to electromagnetic fields and radiofrequency radiation in the daily life of billions of people around the world. Covers brain tumor risks from cell phones, damage to DNA and genes, effects on memory, learning, behavior, attention; sleep disruption and cancer and neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. Effects on sperm and miscarriage (fertility and reproduction), effects of wireless on the brain development of the fetus and infant, and effects of wireless classrooms on children and adolescents is addressed. Mechanisms for biological action and public health responses in other countries are discussed. Therapeutic use of very low intensity EMF and RFR are addressed.
WHAT IS NEW: This update covers about 1800 new studies reporting bioeffects and adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (powerlines, electrical wiring, appliances and hand-held devices) – and wireless technologies (cell and cordless phones, cell towers, WI-FI, wireless laptops, wireless routers, baby monitors, surveillance systems, wireless utility meters (‘smart meters’), etc.
*The BioInitiative 2012 Report has been prepared by 29 authors from ten countries*, ten holding medical degrees (MDs), 21 PhDs, and three MsC, MA or MPHs. Among the authors are three former presidents of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, and five full members of BEMS. One distinguished author is the Chair of the Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation. Another is a Senior Advisor to the European Environmental Agency. Full titles and affiliations of authors is in Section 25 – List of Participants
Each year, about 100,000 people visit the site. In the five years since it’s publication, the BioInitiative website has been accessed over 10.5 million times, or four times every minute. Every five minutes on the average, a person somewhere in the world has logged on. More than 5.2 million files and 1 million pages of information has been downloaded. That is equivalent to more than 93,000 full copies of the 650+ page report (288.5 million kbytes).
* Sweden (6), USA (10), India (2), Italy (2), Greece (2), Canada (2), Denmark (1), Austria (2), Slovac Republic (1), Russia (1)
2012 November Getting Smarter About the Smart Grid, National Institute of Science and Law
This paper examines the technical shortcomings of the smart meter strategy along with its related economic, privacy, security, and potential health risks—explaining why this approach cannot lead to energy sustainability. It analyzes the failures of both federal grid policy and state regulation. It further explores and explains the technical challenges and economic potential of a true smart grid. Finally, it proposes a roadmap for a transformation to a renewable, sustainable electricity economy that could lead the way to a clean energy future. 2012 Professor Yury Grigoriev calls for order and the world needs to listen “Man conquered the Black Plague, but he has created new problems – EMF pollution”
The Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection has agreed to provide a detailed report for the world containing clear information on the most important Russian research results in RF/EMF radiation over the past 50 years. 2012 June Medical and Scientific Experts Call for Safe Technologies in Schools – “Safe Schools 2012”
This document serves to inform schools, Governing Bodies, Academy Trusts, School Boards, Education Authorities, teachers and parents of the professional, medical and scientific concerns about children using wireless technologies in schools. The information can be used to implement safe school policies, practices and guidance in order to safeguard the health and development of children and young people and to aid cognitive abilities, learning and achievement.
The Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection considers necessary:
1. That the Ministry of Health and other organizations responsible for public safety (including children) should pay attention to the regulation of Wi-Fi use in kindergartens and schools, the strengthening of sanitary controls for Wi-Fi use, and the development of an appropriate regulatory framework.
2. To recommend the use of wired networks in schools and educational institutions, rather than networks using wireless broadband systems, such as Wi-Fi.
2012 May IEMFA presentation: The two-perspective risk-assessment system in Europe – World health change possibly linked to electromagnetic fields The presentation gives an clarifying overview of the current system of risk-protection for EMFs in Europe and wider regions in the world. The historically-established system is based on an obsolete ‘Exact-Physics’ paradigm of technology institutions, plus a corresponding science interpretation. Such a paradigm is fundamentally inadequate for the complex dynamic domain of ‘Living organisms’. The established system thus produces misguiding EMF-risk information for worldwide health-protection policies, -regulations, – research and -communications. According to the ‘Complex Biology’ science interpretation of a growing life-science community, heterogeneous EMFs form a highly plausible work- and lifestyle factor of chronic multisystem diseases that increasingly occur worldwide. This threat of structural and serious damage requires an immediate precautionary approach. Implementing the existing guidelines of the Seletun-scientists Resolution is highly necessary to avoid further increase of public costs. 2012 April An increasing number of people worldwide complain that they have become electromagnetic hypersensitive (EHS), Yasuko Kato, Prof. Olle Johansson An increasing number of people worldwide complain that they have become electromagnetic hypersensitive (EHS). We conducted a questionnaire survey of EHS persons in Japan. The aim was to identify electromagnetic ﬁelds (EMF) and plausible EMF sources that caused their symptoms. Postal questionnaires were distributed via a self-help group, and 75 participants (95% women) responded. Reported major complaints were “fatigue/tiredness” (85%), “headache”, “concentration, memory, and thinking” difﬁculty (81%, respectively). Seventy-two per cent used some form of complementary/alternative therapy. The most plausible trigger of EHS onset was a mobile phone base station or personal handy-phone system (37%). Sixty-ﬁve percent experienced health problems to be due to the radiation from other passengers’ mobile phones in trains or buses, and 12% reported that they could not use public transportation at all. Fifty-three percent had a job before the onset, but most had lost their work and/or experienced a decrease in income. Moreover, 85.3% had to take measures to protect themselves from EMF, such as moving to low EMF areas, or buying low EMF electric appliances. EHS persons were suffering not only from their symptoms, but also from economical and social problems. 2012 March The Biological Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Fields, Dr. Andrew Goldsworthy The Harmful Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation. Dr. Andrew Goldsworthy has written an article about the harmful effects of electro magnetic radiation. It explains in some detail, but in lay-persons terms, the mechanisms underlying the various harmful effects of electromagnetic radiation from power lines and mobile telecommunication devices. The Industry can no longer claim that there is no known mechanism by which low level radiation can cause biological damage. It also goes on to say how the Industry, apparently deliberately, ignored warnings about the dangers involved in the specific pulse frequencies that they subsequently used in digital telecommunications. 2012 March The Austrian Medical Association (ÖAK) The Austrian Medical Association has developed a guideline for differential diagnosis and potential treatment of nonspecific stress-related health problems associated with electrosmog. Its core element is a patient questionnaire consisting of a general assessment of stress symptoms and a specific assessment of electrosmog exposure. The guideline is intended as an aid in diagnosing and creating EMF-related health problems. 2012 January IEMFA’s advice on wider risk assessment EMFs
The International EMF Alliance gave comments on a number of questions for risk assessment the European Commission had prepared for its scientific committee SCENIHR, in order to update its opinion of 2009 on the overall risks of EMFs. As was explicitly mentioned, comments were only to be provided on the relevance and the completeness of the posed questions for risk assessment.
2011 September 1-The Economist—and the Truth About Microwave Radiation Emitted from Wireless Technologies
2011 September 2-Scientists, Physicians and Oncologists from Several Nations Criticize The Economist’s Inaccurate Coverage of Cell Phone and Wireless Risks, Calling for Retraction In its unsigned commentary on September 3, 2011, “Worrying about Wireless”, The Economist makes a number of technical errors and misleading statements about microwave radiation that we write to correct. The governments of more than a dozen nations have issued precautionary advice and policies about wireless devices, including restricting cellphone use by children in France, India and Israel (See Worldwide Advisories at www.saferphonezone.com). The Economist would do well to consult with experts in these and other tech-savvy nations to learn the science behind these countries’ decisions so that it can provide accurate reporting on wireless safety and health matters.
2011 November IEMFA’s call for Transparent, Impartial and Pluralist Expert Assessment on health risks of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) Post conference addition We are writing to express our concerns over the narrow range of speakers and agenda items for the November 16- EU Commission conference on EMF, and over the lack of transparency and pluralism in the evaluation of evidence by SCENIHR and other EU risk assessment committees. 2011 May Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans The WHO/International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B), based on an increased risk for glioma, a malignant type of brain cancer1, associated with wireless phone use. Lyon, France, May 31, 2011 2011 May Leading IARC expert Anders Ahlbom linked to the Telecom Industry, Mona Nilsson Conflict of interest at the WHO,Professor Ahlbom, who is appointed to chair the expert group on epidemiology at the upcoming IARC evaluation of the carcinogenicity of mobile phone radiation, is the cofounder of “Gunnar Ahlbom AB” a Brussels-based lobby firm aiming to assist the telecom industry on EU regulations, public affairs and corporate communications. 2011 May Global Scientists Rebuke Coming Decision on Carcinogenicity of Radiofrequency (RF) and Microwaves (MW) by WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Calling Any Opinion Rendered ‘Irresponsible’ Without Full Disclosure of the 2004 Interphone Study Results, International EMF Alliance In collaboration with the International EMF Alliance (IEMFA), scientists from Europe, North America, Australia and Israel have sent an Open Letter to Dr. Christopher Wild, Director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), calling for a postponement of the forthcoming meeting May 24-31, 2011 in Lyon, France, “Non-Ionizing Radiation, Part II: Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field [includes mobile telephones],” at which determination of the carcinogenicity of cell phones and wireless technologies will be made.
2011 March Opinion of the International EMF Alliance (IEMFA) On the need for Independent and Credible Environmental Assessment IEMFA aims to disseminate coherent information and advice to national and international health authorities and policy-makers on the rapidly growing evidence of actual and potential effects on health and wellbeing by non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF). IEMFA also addresses other stakeholders and individuals with an interest in the subject. IEMFA urges governments, health authorities and citizens to take precautionary measures, and proposes a new set of standards. The new guidelines for human exposure to EMF as presented in THE SELETUN RESOLUTION were published in Review of Environmental Health by a consortium of independent international scientists. March 2011 2011 March Electromagnetic Fields from Mobile Phones: Health Effect on Children and Teenagers, RNCNIRP
Professor Yury GRIGORIEV, Professor Valentina NIKITINA, Dr Oleg GRIGORIEV This Resolution was approved by members of the Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (RNCNIRP) at its Committee session on 3 March 2011. The Resolution evolved from scientiﬁc statements adopted by RNCNIRP in 2001, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2009, taking into account contemporary views and actual scientiﬁc data. The Resolution represents a viewpoint of the professional scientiﬁc community and is meant for public dissemination, for the consumers of the mobile telecommunications services, as well as for the legislative and executive authorities who develop and implement health protection, environmental, communication, scientiﬁc and safety policies. 2011 March Radiofrequency/Microwave Radiation and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Don Maisch, PhD 2011 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), was established in 1965 as an agency of the World Health Organization (WHO) with a mission to develop strategies for cancer prevention and control. One of its prime roles is to evaluate and classify the carcinogenicity of chemicals and other substances (including electromagnetic radiation) through published monographs that will then be used by international and national health and regulatory agencies to protect public health. In order to block undue commercial influence in its assessment process the IARC has stipulated that in order to participate in its working groups, members must have no real or apparent conflicts of interests – meaning that they cannot be working for the affected industry. This does not eliminate the potential for commercial influence, however, as industry representatives, with an obvious bias to protect their commercial sector, can still be directly involved in IARC meetings. This is exampled by the May 24-31, 2011 IARC meeting that will be discussing the carcinogenicity of radio-frequency and microwave radiation. Other examples of the problems created by allowing industry involvement in WHO advisory groups, namely the Chernobyl Forum and the Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Task Group (2005) are examined with a warning on forgetting the hard lessons learned by the WHO from its past experience with the tobacco industry. 2011 WORLD HEALTH Urgently Needs Lower EMF Standards, International Scientists Say Olle Johansson, PhD, Karolinska Institute, Chair, Adamantia Fragopoulou, Yuri Grigoriev, Lukas Margaritas, Lloyd Morgan, Elihu Richter, and Cindy Sage, 2011 The ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH publication. The International Electromagnetic Fields Alliance (IEMFA) today announces a new published report and scientific Consensus Statement concerning health hazards of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Led by Olle Johansson, PhD of the Karolinska Institute, the report published by a consortium of international scientists urges global governments to adopt significantly lower human exposure standards for electromagnetic fields. The recommendations are based on the latest body of evidence in biological sciences, and the public-health implications of the unprecedented global exposures to electromagnetic fields from telecommunications and electric power technologies. The scientists recommend specific exposure limits for different frequency fields, including microwaves, used in wireless communications, and ELF electric fields and magnetic fields 2011 2011 Norwegian FELO EHS Report, the English Summery: L. A. Solberg and B. G. Tilset In 2007-2008, The Association for Electrohypersensitive in Norway conducted a questionnaire among its members. The aim was to document the sources that the EHS react to, their symptoms, treatments/interactions that help, and how the handicap affects their daily life. The results were recently published in a report. http://epapir.info/felo/Rapport_V12_211210/index.html 2011 The California Council on Science and Technology – Dr. Olle Johansson’s response The comments submitted by Swedish neuroscientist, Dr. Olle Johansson on the Smart Meter Report prepared by the California Council on Science and Technology in January 2011
2010 Autoimmune Process after Long-Term Low-Level Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields, Y.G. Grigoriev, O.A. Grigoriev, A.A.Ivanov, A.M. Lyaginskaya, A.V. Merkulov, V.S. Stepanov, N.B. Shagina
Mobile Communications and Changes in Electromagnetic Conditions for the Population. Abstract—Mobile communications provides a new source of electromagnetic exposure for almost the whole population of Russia. For the first time in the history of civilization, the brain of mobile phone users is exposed to localized radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). Base stations are a factor in the exposure of the population. Existing standards for limiting exposure do not account for the role of base sta-tions as a source of EMF and cannot guarantee the absence of adverse health effects. It has become necessary to obtain reliable information to expand databases for the development of new standards. As recommended by the World Health Organization, an additional experiment is performed under the supervision of foreign experts, which shows changes in autoimmune status in rats after long-term low-level RF EMF exposure with an incident power of 500 µW/cm2. 2010 Non-thermal effects and mechanisms of interaction between electromagnetic fields and living matter, Rome, Italy, Livio Giuliani November 2010 Protection against Non Ionizing Radiation is based on a paradigmatic assumption: “We know very well the interaction between electromagnetic fields and living organ-isms: it is a thermal interaction; thus the standards internationally accepted are adequate to protect people and workers”. This is a fairy tale. Since the 1970s the non thermal effects of electromagnetic fields on living organisms have been well known and also the non thermal mechanisms have been investigated. Nevertheless, until today, we have been condemned to listen to representatives from international institutions repeating the old refrain above. Furthermore when scientists participating in the ICEMS agreed to edit a monograph – the present one – with the aim of illustrating the non thermal mechanisms and effects due to the electromagnetic interaction with living organisms. 2010 The Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields – Commonwealth Club of California Radiation emitted by cell phones and cell towers has been linked to DNA damage, cancer, immunological impairment, neurological diseases, impaired fertility and impacts on neurological function, including cognition, behavior, performance, mood status, and disruption of sleep. 2010 IEMFA STATEMENT STAVANGER – Urgent need for a precautionary approach Ongoing developments in biological sciences increase worldwide consensus amongst life scientists that the multitude of cellular changes induced by non-ionizing electromagnetic fields may over longer time accumulate into a range of serious health problems, due to prolonged exposure at levels significantly below the current exposure guidelines. These fast emerging long-term effects form a wide threat for public health. 2010 Protection to health risks of EMFs at work – contribution IEMFA to consultation European Commission Contribution of IEMFA to a consultation process amongst social partners of the EC, to ensure protection of workers from long-term health risks related to exposure to EMFs at work. Recommendations for a new directive departing from EC second stage document (2010) 3250 final of May 20th, 2010 2010 The Procrustean Approach – Knowledge development on EMF & Health highly manipulated by industry Setting Exposure Standards for Telecommunications Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation, An examination of the manipulation of telecommunications standards by political, military, and industrial vested interests at the expense of public health protection, Don Maisch, PhD thesis 2010
“Low dose exposure to chemicals and electromagnetic radiation from increasingly advanced electronic equipment is apparently one of the work environment risks in offices in the twenty-first century. How great the health risks are is not yet known. Researchers who want to find out are kept back by constant lack of funding. In this situation, the role of unions is important, partly with respect to demanding more adequate research in this field, partly to assert at least the principle of prudent avoidance – if they don’t dare to demand a zero-risk goal.” by Don Maisch PhD and Prof. Olle Johansson 2010 2010 Eurobarometer Electromagnetic Fields Exposure to man-made sources of EMFs has increased dramatically due to the demand for electricity, wireless technologies (especially for telecommunications), and changes in work practices and social behaviour. As a result, all EU citizens are now exposed to EMFs through sources such as high-voltage power lines, household electrical appliances,computers, radar, radio and television broadcast facilities and mobile telephones 2010 2010 The foundations of thermally based RF standard setting Taken from PhD dissertation, The Procrustean Approach: Setting Exposure Standards for
Telecommunications Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation Don Maisch 2010 2010 The INTERPHONE Study Group and the WHO publication Interphone Study finds increased risk of glioma and meningioma for regular mobile phone users 2010 2010 International Appeal from Würzburg Urgent appeal of EUROPAEM to European environment and health ministers and other authorities to financial invest in the greatly concerning increase of chronic multisystem illnesses based on similar pathological mechanisms. Common mechanisms are influenced by environmental factors including electromagnetic field (EMF) triggers 2010 2010 Progressive stages in worldwide knowledge development regarding Electromagnetic Fields & Health With this discussion paper IEMFA aims to enhance progressive stages of knowledge development on EMF&H. Progressive stages in world-wide knowledge of the last decades bring a developing conception of associated health problems. They form part of an ongoing development towards a state of science which reflects reality
Long-term exposure, but … … no knowledge, no safety standards Citizens and ecosystems are nowadays increasingly exposed to long-term growth in low- and high-frequency electromagnetic fields from an ever wider range of electrical equipment, power lines and wireless applications. The knowledge about possible health consequences of longterm effects of such fields is not available, or available only in a very limited way. This also applies to the cumulative effect of these influences. In line with this, the current standards primarily focus on the prevention of acute health effects occurring on exposure to individual fields. As a consequence, in the current situation, human beings and the natural world are not protected against possible long term health effects from a cocktail of different electromagnetic fields 2009
Worldwide, scientists, public health experts, and many government agencies are making recommendations for children to avoid using cell phones and generally for cell phone users to aim towards lower radiation exposure (Leitgeb 2008; Mead 2008). Recommendations from government agencies of several countries and international organizations are summarized below. Science Review on Cancer Risks and Children’s Health 2009
The 11 Interphone study design flaws, taken together, greatly distort the true risk of brain tumors from cellphone use. Any consideration of Interphone study conclusions must weigh an understanding of these design flaws so as not to mislead the public about risks of cell phone use. It is the view of the editors and endorsers of this report that there is a far greater risk of brain tumors from cellphone use than has been reported in the Telecom-funded Danish cellphone subscriber study or in the Telecom-funded Interphone study 2009 2009 The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Exposure to High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, Biological Effects and Health Consequences 2009 Athermischer Wirkungen elektromagnetischischer Felder im Mobilfunkbereich UNI Wien die Professoren Mosgöller, Kundi und Gerner erneut nicht-thermische Wirkungen 2009 BEMS – BIOEM Davos abstracts the programme Joint Meeting of The Bioelectromagnetics Society and the European BioElectromagnetics Association 2009 International Non-Ionizing Radiation and Health Workshop – Brazil, May 18 and 19 Workshop Ministério Público do RS, Rua A. Figueiredo Pinto 80, P. Alegre, RS, Brazil. The workshop was under the sponsorship of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, the Pan American Health Organization, the Universidade Fédéral do Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, the Public Ministry of Rio Grande do Sul, the International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety, as well as other governmental and non governmental organizations. International researchers from several countries will deliver invited talks on selected subjects. Researchers, public health authorities, as well as authorities from the legislative, executive and judiciary governmental bodies from Brazil and other South American countries are also invited. 2009 The Birds, the Bees and Electromagnetic Pollution Animals use their cryptochrome pigments for both magnetic and solar navigation. They also control the activity of the immune system. Weak electromagnetic fields can affect all of these functions with disastrous consequences. Dr. Andrew Goldsworthy May 2009
Results: The results indicate that using a cell phone for ≥10 years approximately doubles the risk of being diagnosed with a brain tumor on the same (“ipsilateral”) side of the head as that preferred for cell phone use. The data achieve statistical significance for glioma and acoustic neuroma but notfor meningioma.
Conclusion: The authors conclude that there is adequate epidemiologic evidence to suggest a link between prolonged cell phone usage and the development of an ipsilateral brain tumor.
Vini G. Khurana, PhD, Charles Teo, Michael Kundi, Lennart Hardell, Michael Carlberg, 2009
Methodologic considerations revealed that three important conditions for epidemiologic studies to detect an increased risk are not met:
a) no evidence-based exposure metric is available;
b) the observed duration of mobile phone use is generally still too low; c) no evidence-based selection of end points among the grossly different types of neoplasias is possible because of lack of etiologic hypotheses. Concerning risk estimates, selection bias, misclassification bias, and effects of the disease on mobile phone use could have reduced estimates, and recall bias may have led to spuriously increased risks. The overall evidence speaks in favor of an increased risk, but its magnitude cannot be assessed at present because of insufficient information on long-term use.
Michael Kundi: Institute of Environmental Health, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2009
Especially children mobile phone users are likely to face the following health hazards in the nearest future: disruption of memory, decline of attention, diminishing learning and cognitive abilities, increased irritability, sleep problems, increase in sensitivity to the stress and increased epileptic readiness. On longer term, expected (possible) remote health risks are: brain tumors, tumors of acoustical and vestibular nerves (in the age of 25-30 years), Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, depressive syndrome, and other types of degeneration of the nervous structures of the brain (in the age of 50 to 60).
The results of a questionnaire that was completed by 250 Electrohypersensitive(EHS) persons in the Netherlands over a 3-year period, who contacted the EHS Foundation on Their Own Initiative. Self declared health problems were recorded along with the sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) –if known- that caused the health effects Self-Declared health problems recorded alongwith were the sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs)-if known-That caused the health effects 2008 How Susceptible Are Genes to Mobile Phone Radiation? Prof. Franz Adlkofer, Prof. Igor Y. Belyaev, and Vladislav M. Shiroff 2008 4-fold increase in risk of leukaemia 4-fold increase in risk of leukaemia if they also live within 100 metres of powerlines 2008 Preliminary Report Euro Parliament Preoccupations concerning the effects on human health of electromagnetic fields 2008 The Bioelectromagnetics Society Meeting An independent organization of biological and physical scientists, physicians and engineers 2008 Congress Tessaloniki Effects EMF May 2008 2008 The Cell Phone and the Cell Dr. Andrew Goldsworthy May 2008 2008 Why mobile phone masts can be more dangerous than the phones Dr. Andrew Goldsworthy Marz 2008 2008 Non Thermal Effects Michael Bevington 2008 2008 Mobile Phones and Brain Tumours Dr. Vini G. Khurana, MBBS, BSc 2008
2007 Bioinitiative Report, Conclusions The BioInitiative Report is an internationally acclaimed scientific and public health report on potential health risks of electromagnetic fields and radiofrequency/microwave radiation. In 2007, the BioInitiative Working Group, an international collaboration of prestigious scientists and public health experts from Columbia University and the University at Albany (New York), University of Washington (Seattle), the Karolinska Institute, Umea University and Orebro University Hospital (Sweden), the European Environmental Agency (Denmark) Medical University of Vienna (Austria) and Zhejiang University School of Medicine, (China) released a 650-page report citing more than 2000 studies that document health effects of EMFs from all sources. The BioInitiative Report was produced for publication to the broadest possible audience, hence placed on the Web. Much of the BioInitiative Report content, including updated chapters and new chapters is now published in the journal Pathophysiology (August 2009). 2007 The Dangers of Electromagnetic Smog Dr. Andrew Goldsworthy Augustus 2007 2007 The Biological Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Fields Dr. Andrew Goldsworthy 2007 2007 Citywide Wireless Broadband Internet Access Network Dr. Magda Havas 2007 2007 Eurobarometer EMF European Commission 2007 2006 WHO Workshop on Electrical Hypersensitivity World Health Organization 2004-2006 2006 ECOLOG Handbuch Komplett ECOLOG-Instituut 2006 2005 WHO Factsheet 296 World Health Organization 2005 2005 Health and electromagnetic ﬁelds European Commission 2005 2004 REFLEX Studie Final and progress summery Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards From Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods. Total project cost 3.149.621 € 2002 Limiting Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) European Commission 2002 2000 The Stewart Report Stewart Report, Sir William Stewart Chairman IEGMP 2000